**Contents**

**I Introduction to Powers of 10**

I–1 Scientific Notation

I–2 Engineering Notation and Metric Prefixes

I–3 Converting between Metric Prefixes 10

I–4 Addition and Subtraction Involving Powers of 10 Notation

I–5 Multiplication and Division Involving Powers of 10Notation

I–4 Addition and Subtraction Involving Powers of 10 Notation

I–5 Multiplication and Division Involving Powers of 10Notation

I–6 Reciprocals with Powers of 10

I–7 Squaring Numbers Expressed in Powers of 10 Notation

I–8 Square Roots of Numbers Expressed in Powers of 10 Notation

I–9 The Scientific Calculator

Summary

I–7 Squaring Numbers Expressed in Powers of 10 Notation

I–8 Square Roots of Numbers Expressed in Powers of 10 Notation

I–9 The Scientific Calculator

Summary

**Chapter 1 Electricity 22**

1–1 Negative and Positive Polarities

1–2 Electrons and Protons in the Atom

1–2 Electrons and Protons in the Atom

1–3 Structure of the Atom

1–4 The Coulomb Unit of Electric Charge

1–5 The Volt Unit of Potential Difference

1–6 Charge in Motion Is Current

1–7 Resistance Is Opposition to Current

1–8 The Closed Circuit

1–9 The Direction of Current

1–10 Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC)

1–11 Sources of Electricity

1–12 The Digital Multimeter

Summary

1–4 The Coulomb Unit of Electric Charge

1–5 The Volt Unit of Potential Difference

1–6 Charge in Motion Is Current

1–7 Resistance Is Opposition to Current

1–8 The Closed Circuit

1–9 The Direction of Current

1–10 Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC)

1–11 Sources of Electricity

1–12 The Digital Multimeter

Summary

**Chapter 2 Resistors**

2–1 Types of Resistors

2–2 Resistor Color Coding

2–2 Resistor Color Coding

2–3 Variable Resistors

2–4 Rheostats and Potentiometers

2–5 Power Rating of Resistors

2–6 Resistor Troubles

Summary

2–6 Resistor Troubles

Summary

**Chapter 3 Ohm’s Law**

3–1 The Current I V/ R

3–2 The Voltage V IR

3–2 The Voltage V IR

3–3 The Resistance R V/I

3–4 Practical Units

3–5 Multiple and Submultiple Units

3–6 The Linear Proportion between V and I

3–6 The Linear Proportion between V and I

3–7 Electric Power

3–8 Power Dissipation in Resistance

3–9 Power Formulas

3–10 Choosing a Resistor for a Circuit

3–11 Electric Shock 94

3–12 Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Troubles

Summary

3–8 Power Dissipation in Resistance

3–9 Power Formulas

3–10 Choosing a Resistor for a Circuit

3–11 Electric Shock 94

3–12 Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Troubles

Summary

**Chapter 4 Series Circuits**

4–1 Why I Is the Same in All Parts of a Series Circuit

4–2 Total R Equals the Sum of All Series Resistances

4–3 Series IR Voltage Drops

4–4 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law KVL)

4–5 Polarity of IR Voltage Drops

4–2 Total R Equals the Sum of All Series Resistances

4–3 Series IR Voltage Drops

4–4 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law KVL)

4–5 Polarity of IR Voltage Drops

4–6 Total Power in a Series Circuit

4–7 Series-Aiding and Series- Opposing Voltages

4–8 Analyzing Series Circuits with Random Unknowns

4–9 Ground Connections in Electrical and Electronic Systems

4–10 Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Series Circuits

4–9 Ground Connections in Electrical and Electronic Systems

4–10 Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Series Circuits

Summary

**Chapter 5 Parallel Circuits**

5–1 The Applied Voltage VA Is the same across Parallel Branches

5–2 Each Branch I Equals VA /R

5–3 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law (KCL)

5–4 Resistances in Parallel

5–5 Conductances in Parallel

5–6 Total Power in Parallel Circuits

5–7 Analyzing Parallel Circuits with Random Unknowns

5–8 Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Parallel Circuits

Summary

5–2 Each Branch I Equals VA /R

5–3 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law (KCL)

5–4 Resistances in Parallel

5–5 Conductances in Parallel

5–6 Total Power in Parallel Circuits

5–7 Analyzing Parallel Circuits with Random Unknowns

5–8 Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Parallel Circuits

Summary

**Chapter 6 Series-Parallel Circuits**

6–1 Finding R T for Series-Parallel Resistances

6–2 Resistance Strings in Parallel

6–3 Resistance Banks in Series

6–4 Resistance Banks and Strings in Series-Parallel

6–5 Analyzing Series-Parallel Circuits with Random Unknowns

6–6 The Wheatstone Bridge

6–7 Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Series-Parallel Circuits

Summary

6–2 Resistance Strings in Parallel

6–3 Resistance Banks in Series

6–4 Resistance Banks and Strings in Series-Parallel

6–5 Analyzing Series-Parallel Circuits with Random Unknowns

6–6 The Wheatstone Bridge

6–7 Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Series-Parallel Circuits

Summary

**Chapter 7 Voltage Dividers and Current Dividers**

7–1 Series Voltage Dividers

7–2 Current Divider with Two Parallel Resistances

7–3 Current Division by Parallel Conductance

7–2 Current Divider with Two Parallel Resistances

7–3 Current Division by Parallel Conductance

7–4 Series Voltage Divider with Parallel Load Current

7–5 Design of a Loaded Voltage Divider

Summary

7–5 Design of a Loaded Voltage Divider

Summary

**Chapter 8 Analog and Digital Multimeters**8–1 Moving-Coil Meter

8–2 Meter Shunts

8–3 Voltmeters

8–4 Loading Effect of a Voltmeter

8–5 Ohmmeters

8–6 Multimeters

8–7 Digital Multimeter(DMM)

8–8 Meter Applications

8–9 Checking Continuity with the Ohmmeter 247

8–3 Voltmeters

8–4 Loading Effect of a Voltmeter

8–5 Ohmmeters

8–6 Multimeters

8–7 Digital Multimeter(DMM)

8–8 Meter Applications

8–9 Checking Continuity with the Ohmmeter 247

Summary

Cumulative Review Summary Chapters 7 and 8

**Chapter 9 Kirchhoff ’s Laws 258**

9–1 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law(KCL)

9–2 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law(KVL)

9–3 Method of Branch Currents

9–4 Node-Voltage Analysis

9–5 Method of Mesh Currents

Summary

9–2 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law(KVL)

9–3 Method of Branch Currents

9–4 Node-Voltage Analysis

9–5 Method of Mesh Currents

Summary

**Chapter 10 Network Theorems**

10–1 Superposition Theorem

10–2 Thevenin’s Theorem

10–3 Thevenizing a Circuit with Two Voltage Sources

10–4 Thevenizing a Bridge Circuit

10–5 Norton’s Theorem

10–6 Thevenin-Norton Conversions

10–7 Conversion of Voltage and Current Sources

10–8 Millman’s Theorem 298

10–9 T or Y and or Connections

Summary

Cumulative Review Summary Chapters 9 and 10

10–2 Thevenin’s Theorem

10–3 Thevenizing a Circuit with Two Voltage Sources

10–4 Thevenizing a Bridge Circuit

10–5 Norton’s Theorem

10–6 Thevenin-Norton Conversions

10–7 Conversion of Voltage and Current Sources

10–8 Millman’s Theorem 298

10–9 T or Y and or Connections

Summary

Cumulative Review Summary Chapters 9 and 10

**Chapter 11 Conductors and Insulators**

11–1 Function of the Conductor

11–2 Standard Wire Gage Sizes

11–3 Types of Wire Conductors

11–4 Connectors

11–5 Printed Wiring

11–6 Switches

11–7 Fuses

11–8 Wire Resistance

11–9 Temperature Coefficient of Resistance

11–10 Ion Current in Liquids and Gases

11–11 Insulators

11–12 Troubleshooting Hints for Wires and Connectors

Summary 337

11–3 Types of Wire Conductors

11–4 Connectors

11–5 Printed Wiring

11–6 Switches

11–7 Fuses

11–8 Wire Resistance

11–9 Temperature Coefficient of Resistance

11–10 Ion Current in Liquids and Gases

11–11 Insulators

11–12 Troubleshooting Hints for Wires and Connectors

Summary 337

**Chapter 12 Batteries**12–1 Introduction to Batteries

12–2 The Voltaic Cell

12–3 Common Types of Primary Cells

12–4 Lead-Acid Wet Cell

12–5 Additional Types of Secondary Cells

12–6 Series-Connected and Parallel-Connected Cells

12–7 Current Drain Depends on Load Resistance

12–8 Internal Resistance of a Generator

12–9 Constant-Voltage and Constant-Current Sources

12–10 Matching a Load Resistance to the Generator ri

Summary

Cumulative Review Summary Chapters 11 and 12

12–2 The Voltaic Cell

12–3 Common Types of Primary Cells

12–4 Lead-Acid Wet Cell

12–5 Additional Types of Secondary Cells

12–6 Series-Connected and Parallel-Connected Cells

12–7 Current Drain Depends on Load Resistance

12–8 Internal Resistance of a Generator

12–9 Constant-Voltage and Constant-Current Sources

12–10 Matching a Load Resistance to the Generator ri

Summary

Cumulative Review Summary Chapters 11 and 12

**Chapter 13 Magnetism**

13–1 The Magnetic Field

13–2 Magnetic Flux ( )

13–3 Flux Density (B )

13–4 Induction by the MagneticField

13–5 Air Gap of a Magnet

13–6 Types of Magnets

13–7 Ferrites

13–8 Magnetic Shielding

13–9 The Hall Effect

Summary

13–2 Magnetic Flux ( )

13–3 Flux Density (B )

13–4 Induction by the MagneticField

13–5 Air Gap of a Magnet

13–6 Types of Magnets

13–7 Ferrites

13–8 Magnetic Shielding

13–9 The Hall Effect

Summary

**Chapter 14 Electromagnetism**

14–1 Ampere-Turns of Magnetomotive Force (mmf )

14–2 Field Intensity (H )

14–3 B-H Magnetization Curve

14–4 Magnetic Hysteresis

14–5 Magnetic Field around an Electric Current

14–6 Magnetic Polarity of a Coil

14–7 Motor Action between Two Magnetic Fields

14–8 Induced Current

14–9 Generating an Induced Voltage

14–10 Relays

Summary

14–2 Field Intensity (H )

14–3 B-H Magnetization Curve

14–4 Magnetic Hysteresis

14–5 Magnetic Field around an Electric Current

14–6 Magnetic Polarity of a Coil

14–7 Motor Action between Two Magnetic Fields

14–8 Induced Current

14–9 Generating an Induced Voltage

14–10 Relays

Summary

**Chapter 15 Alternating Voltage and Current**

15–1 Alternating Current Applications

15–2 Alternating-Voltage Generator

15–3 The Sine Wave

15–4 Alternating Current

15–5 Voltage and Current Values for a Sine Wave

15–6 Frequency

15–7 Period

15–8 Wavelength

15–9 Phase Angle

15–10 The Time Factor in Frequency and Phase

15–11 Alternating Current Circuits with Resistance

15–12 Nonsinusoidal AC Waveforms

15–13 Harmonic Frequencies

15–14 The 60-Hz AC Power Line

15–15 Motors and Generators

15–16 Three–Phase AC Power

Summary

15–2 Alternating-Voltage Generator

15–3 The Sine Wave

15–4 Alternating Current

15–5 Voltage and Current Values for a Sine Wave

15–6 Frequency

15–7 Period

15–8 Wavelength

15–9 Phase Angle

15–10 The Time Factor in Frequency and Phase

15–11 Alternating Current Circuits with Resistance

15–12 Nonsinusoidal AC Waveforms

15–13 Harmonic Frequencies

15–14 The 60-Hz AC Power Line

15–15 Motors and Generators

15–16 Three–Phase AC Power

Summary

Cumulative Review Summary Chapters 13 to 15

**Chapter 16 Capacitance**

16–1 How Charge Is Stored in a Dielectric

16–2 Charging and Discharging a Capacitor

16–3 The Farad Unit of Capacitance 475

16–4 Typical Capacitors

16–5 Electrolytic Capacitors

16–6 Capacitor Coding

16–7 Parallel Capacitances

16–8 Series Capacitances

16–9 Energy Stored in Electrostatic Field of Capacitance

16–10 Measuring and Testing Capacitors

16–11 Troubles in Capacitors

Summary

16–2 Charging and Discharging a Capacitor

16–3 The Farad Unit of Capacitance 475

16–4 Typical Capacitors

16–5 Electrolytic Capacitors

16–6 Capacitor Coding

16–7 Parallel Capacitances

16–8 Series Capacitances

16–9 Energy Stored in Electrostatic Field of Capacitance

16–10 Measuring and Testing Capacitors

16–11 Troubles in Capacitors

Summary

**Chapter 17 Capacitive Reactance**

17–1 Alternating Current in a Capacitive Circuit

17–2 The Amount of XC Equals 1/(2 fC )

17–3 Series or Parallel Capacitive Reactances

17–4 Ohm’s Law Applied to XC

17–5 Applications of Capacitive Reactance

17–6 Sine-Wave Charge and Discharge Current

Summary

17–2 The Amount of XC Equals 1/(2 fC )

17–3 Series or Parallel Capacitive Reactances

17–4 Ohm’s Law Applied to XC

17–5 Applications of Capacitive Reactance

17–6 Sine-Wave Charge and Discharge Current

Summary

**Chapter 18 Capacitive Circuits**

18–1 Sine Wave vC Lags iC by 90

18–2 X C and R in Series

18–3 Impedance Z Triangle

18-4 RC Phase-Shifter Circuit

18–5 X C and R in Parallel

18–6 RF and AF Coupling Capacitors

18–7 Capacitive Voltage Dividers

18–8 The General Case of Capacitive Current iC

Summary

18–2 X C and R in Series

18–3 Impedance Z Triangle

18-4 RC Phase-Shifter Circuit

18–5 X C and R in Parallel

18–6 RF and AF Coupling Capacitors

18–7 Capacitive Voltage Dividers

18–8 The General Case of Capacitive Current iC

Summary

Cumulative Review Summary Chapters 16 to 18

**Chapter 19 Inductance**

19–1 Induction by AlternatingCurrent

19–2 Self-Inductance L

19–3 Self-Induced Voltage vL

19–4 How vL Opposes a Change inCurrent

19–5 Mutual Inductance L M

19–6 Transformers

19–7 Transformer Ratings

19–8 ImpedanceTransformation

19–9 Core Losses

19–10 Types of Cores

19–11 Variable Inductance

19–12 Inductances in Series or Parallel

19–13 Energy in a Magnetic Field of Inductance

19–14 Stray Capacitive and Inductive Effects

19–15 Measuring and Testing Inductors

19–2 Self-Inductance L

19–3 Self-Induced Voltage vL

19–4 How vL Opposes a Change inCurrent

19–5 Mutual Inductance L M

19–6 Transformers

19–7 Transformer Ratings

19–8 ImpedanceTransformation

19–9 Core Losses

19–10 Types of Cores

19–11 Variable Inductance

19–12 Inductances in Series or Parallel

19–13 Energy in a Magnetic Field of Inductance

19–14 Stray Capacitive and Inductive Effects

19–15 Measuring and Testing Inductors

Summary

**Chapter 20 Inductive Reactance**

20–1 How X L Reduces the Amount of I

20–2 XL 2 f L

20–3 Series or Parallel Inductive Reactances

20–4 Ohm’s Law Applied to X L

20–5 Applications of X L for Different Frequencies

20–6 Waveshape of vL Induced by Sine-Wave Current

Summary

20–2 XL 2 f L

20–3 Series or Parallel Inductive Reactances

20–4 Ohm’s Law Applied to X L

20–5 Applications of X L for Different Frequencies

20–6 Waveshape of vL Induced by Sine-Wave Current

Summary

**Chapter 21 Inductive Circuits**

21–1 Sine Wave iL Lags vL by 90

21–2 X L and R in Series

21–3 Impedance Z Triangle

21–4 X L and R in Parallel

21–5 Q of a Coil

21–6 AF and RF Chokes

21–7 The General Case of Inductive Voltage

Summary

21–2 X L and R in Series

21–3 Impedance Z Triangle

21–4 X L and R in Parallel

21–5 Q of a Coil

21–6 AF and RF Chokes

21–7 The General Case of Inductive Voltage

Summary

**Chapter 22 RC and L/ R Time Constants**

22–1 Response of Resistance Alone

22–2 L /R Time Constant

22–3 High Voltage Produced by Opening an RL Circuit

22–4 RC Time Constant

22–5 RC Charge and Discharge Curves

22–6 High Current Produced by Short-Circuiting an RC Circuit

22–7 RC Waveshapes

22–8 Long and Short Time Constants

22–9 Charge and Discharge with a Short RC Time Constant

22–10 Long Time Constant for an RC Coupling Circuit

22–11 Advanced Time Constant Analysis

22–12 Comparison of Reactance and Time Constant

Summary

22–3 High Voltage Produced by Opening an RL Circuit

22–4 RC Time Constant

22–5 RC Charge and Discharge Curves

22–6 High Current Produced by Short-Circuiting an RC Circuit

22–7 RC Waveshapes

22–8 Long and Short Time Constants

22–9 Charge and Discharge with a Short RC Time Constant

22–10 Long Time Constant for an RC Coupling Circuit

22–11 Advanced Time Constant Analysis

22–12 Comparison of Reactance and Time Constant

Summary

Cumulative Review Summary Chapters 19 to 22

**Chapter 23 Alternating Current Circuits**

23–1 AC Circuits with Resistance but No Reactance

23–2 Circuits with XL Alone

23–3 Circuits with XC Alone

23–4 Opposite Reactances Cancel

23–5 Series Reactance and Resistance

23–6 Parallel Reactance and Resistance

23–7 Series-Parallel Reactance and Resistance

23–8 Real Power

23–9 AC Meters

23–10 Wattmeters

23–11 Summary of Types of Ohms in AC Circuits

23–12 Summary of Types of Phasors in AC Circuits

Summary

23–2 Circuits with XL Alone

23–3 Circuits with XC Alone

23–4 Opposite Reactances Cancel

23–5 Series Reactance and Resistance

23–6 Parallel Reactance and Resistance

23–7 Series-Parallel Reactance and Resistance

23–8 Real Power

23–9 AC Meters

23–10 Wattmeters

23–11 Summary of Types of Ohms in AC Circuits

23–12 Summary of Types of Phasors in AC Circuits

Summary

**Chapter 24 Complex Numbers for AC Circuits**

24–1 Positive and Negative Numbers

24–2 The j Operator

24–3 Defi nition of a Complex Number

24–4 How Complex Numbers Are Applied to AC Circuits

24–5 Impedance in Complex Form

24–6 Operations with Complex Numbers

24–7 Magnitude and Angle of a Complex Number

24–8 Polar Form of Complex Numbers

24–9 Converting Polar to Rectangular Form

24–10 Complex Numbers in Series AC Circuits

24–11 Complex Numbers in Parallel AC Circuits

24–12 Combining Two Complex Branch Impedances

24–13 Combining Complex Branch Currents

24–14 Parallel Circuit with Three Complex Branches

Summary

24–2 The j Operator

24–3 Defi nition of a Complex Number

24–4 How Complex Numbers Are Applied to AC Circuits

24–5 Impedance in Complex Form

24–6 Operations with Complex Numbers

24–7 Magnitude and Angle of a Complex Number

24–8 Polar Form of Complex Numbers

24–9 Converting Polar to Rectangular Form

24–10 Complex Numbers in Series AC Circuits

24–11 Complex Numbers in Parallel AC Circuits

24–12 Combining Two Complex Branch Impedances

24–13 Combining Complex Branch Currents

24–14 Parallel Circuit with Three Complex Branches

Summary

Cumulative Review Summary Chapters 23 and 24

**Chapter 25 Resonance**

25–1 The Resonance Effect

25–2 Series Resonance

25–3 Parallel Resonance

25–4 Resonant Frequency fr 1 (2 ___LC )

25–5 Q Magnifi cation Factor of a Resonant Circuit

25–6 Bandwidth of a Resonant Circuit

25–7 Tuning

25–8 Mistuning

25–9 Analysis of Parallel Resonant Circuits

25–10 Damping of Parallel Resonant Circuits

25–11 Choosing L and C for a Resonant Circuit

Summary

25–2 Series Resonance

25–3 Parallel Resonance

25–4 Resonant Frequency fr 1 (2 ___LC )

25–5 Q Magnifi cation Factor of a Resonant Circuit

25–6 Bandwidth of a Resonant Circuit

25–7 Tuning

25–8 Mistuning

25–9 Analysis of Parallel Resonant Circuits

25–10 Damping of Parallel Resonant Circuits

25–11 Choosing L and C for a Resonant Circuit

Summary

**Chapter 26 Filters**

26–1 Examples of Filtering

26–2 Direct Current Combined with Alternating Current

26–3 Transformer Coupling

26–4 Capacitive Coupling

26–5 Bypass Capacitors

26–6 Filter Circuits

26–7 Low-Pass Filters

26–8 High-Pass Filters

26–9 Analyzing Filter Circuits

26–10 Decibels and Frequency Response Curves

26–11 Resonant Filters

26-12 Interference Filters

Summary

26–2 Direct Current Combined with Alternating Current

26–3 Transformer Coupling

26–4 Capacitive Coupling

26–5 Bypass Capacitors

26–6 Filter Circuits

26–7 Low-Pass Filters

26–8 High-Pass Filters

26–9 Analyzing Filter Circuits

26–10 Decibels and Frequency Response Curves

26–11 Resonant Filters

26-12 Interference Filters

Summary

Cumulative Review Summary Chapters 23 and 24

**Chapter 27 Diodes and Diode Applications**

27–1 Semiconductor Materials

27–2 The p -n Junction Diode

27–3 Volt-Ampere Characteristic Curve

27–4 Diode Approximations

27–5 Diode Ratings 837

27–6 Rectifi er Circuits 838

27–7 Special Diodes 856

Summary

27–2 The p -n Junction Diode

27–3 Volt-Ampere Characteristic Curve

27–4 Diode Approximations

27–5 Diode Ratings 837

27–6 Rectifi er Circuits 838

27–7 Special Diodes 856

Summary

**Chapter 28 Bipolar Junction Transistors**

28–1 Transistor Construction

28–2 Proper Transistor Biasing

28–3 Transistor Operating Regions

28–4 Transistor Ratings

28–5 Checking a Transistor with an Ohmmeter

28–6 Transistor Biasing Techniques

Summary

28–2 Proper Transistor Biasing

28–3 Transistor Operating Regions

28–4 Transistor Ratings

28–5 Checking a Transistor with an Ohmmeter

28–6 Transistor Biasing Techniques

Summary

**Chapter 29 Transistor Amplifiers**

29–1 AC Resistance of a Diode

29–2 Small Signal Amplifier Operation

29–3 AC Equivalent Circuit of a CE Amplifier

29–4 Calculating the Voltage Gain, A V, of a CE Amplifier

29–5 Calculating the Input and Output Impedances in a CE Amplifier

29–6 Common-Collector Amplifier

29–7 AC Analysis of an Emitter Follower

29-8 Emitter Follower Applications

29-9 Common-Base Amplifier

29-10 AC Analysis of a Common-Base Amplifier

Summary

29–2 Small Signal Amplifier Operation

29–3 AC Equivalent Circuit of a CE Amplifier

29–4 Calculating the Voltage Gain, A V, of a CE Amplifier

29–5 Calculating the Input and Output Impedances in a CE Amplifier

29–6 Common-Collector Amplifier

29–7 AC Analysis of an Emitter Follower

29-8 Emitter Follower Applications

29-9 Common-Base Amplifier

29-10 AC Analysis of a Common-Base Amplifier

Summary

**Chapter 30 Field Effect Transistors**

30–1 JFETs and Their Characteristics

30–2 JFET Biasing Techniques

30–3 JFET Amplifiers

30–4 MOSFETs and Their Characteristics

30–5 MOSFET Biasing Techniques

30–6 Handling MOSFETs

Summary

30–2 JFET Biasing Techniques

30–3 JFET Amplifiers

30–4 MOSFETs and Their Characteristics

30–5 MOSFET Biasing Techniques

30–6 Handling MOSFETs

Summary

**Chapter 31 Power Amplifiers**

31–1 Classes of Operation

31–2 Class A Amplifiers

31–3 Class B Push-PullAmplifiers

31–4 Class C Amplifiers

Summary

31–2 Class A Amplifiers

31–3 Class B Push-PullAmplifiers

31–4 Class C Amplifiers

Summary

**Chapter 32 Thyristors**

32–1 Diacs

32–2 SCRs and Their Characteristics

32–3 Triacs

32–4 Unijunction Transistors

32–2 SCRs and Their Characteristics

32–3 Triacs

32–4 Unijunction Transistors

Summary

**Chapter 33 Operational Amplifiers**

33–1 Differential Amplifiers

33–2 Operational Amplifiers and Their Characteristics

33–3 Op-Amp Circuits with Negative Feedback

33–4 Popular Op-Amp Circuits

Summary

33–2 Operational Amplifiers and Their Characteristics

33–3 Op-Amp Circuits with Negative Feedback

33–4 Popular Op-Amp Circuits

Summary

**Appendix A**Electrical Symbols and Abbreviations

**Appendix B**Solder and the Soldering Process

**Appendix C**Listing of Preferred Resistance Values

**Appendix D**Component Schematic Symbols

**Appendix E**Using the Oscilloscope

**Appendix F**Introduction to MultiSim

**Glossary**

**Answers Self-Tests**

**Answers Odd-Numbered Problems and Critical Thinking Problems**